Every once in awhile, I write an assignment that I’m especially pleased with. This is one that I wrote for my Ethics’s students’ first paper, and I received the the papers today. I like it for two reasons: first, because it provides an important lesson on the use of texts in a community, and second, because it requires students to use Confucius’s Analects to deal with a problem that is personal and for which they are the true expert.
Ethics Essay # 1: A Letter to a Community Leader
The Common Text
A “common text” is the name we give to a book (or other text) that nearly everyone in a designated community has read, is expected to read, and gives some kind of value. The community may be a small one: your family may its favorite movies or books that everyone is familiar with, and members of the family may gently reinforce morals or lessons by referring to those texts. A workplace or other institution may have a “creed,” plus it’s policies and inside jokes. Some colleges assign a “common text” to all of its first-year students, to encourage all students to have conversations about ideas.
An “authoritative common text” is like a common text, but with the additional feature that more or less everyone in the community is expected—and sometimes required—to believe in or accept the truth and morality of the text. This text, and how a community uses it, can often define a culture. The value of the text is to provide a common worldview, a place to agree even when people disagree on other things, a tool for law and education, a context to build stories, a sense of cultural identity…
Since the formal acceptance of Christianity into the Roman Empire in 313 ad, the Holy Bible served as the authoritative common text throughout most of Europe for more than 1400 years. After that, many European nations (and former European colonies, such as the United States), adopted constitutions that were based on “human rights” and divorced themselves from the authority of the Bible. Even still, most citizens considered the Holy Bible as an authoritative text, even if people should now be granted the right to choose which religion they ascribe to.
With the first Islamic State, founded by Muhammad in Medina in 622ad, the Quran has come to serve as the authoritative common texts for nearly all Arabic nations. The influence of the Arabic text expanded as well, being adopted by former Arabic colonies or through trade throughout northern and eastern Africa, Persia, India, and Malaysia. Today, many nations still hold the Quran as its authoritative common text.
Most nations today have adopted human-rights based constitutions, largely based on the constitutions of France and the United States. Not everyone believes these texts are flawless, but everyone understands that the law is based on this text above all others. All authoritative common texts need to derive their authority from some source, whether real or fictional. So long as the people believe the source, it is authoritative. It the case of the Holy Bible and Quran, this authority comes from God. In the case of most constitutions, this authority comes from “We the People,” and requires validation through a vote.
Enter Confucius: Since The Analects were composed about 2,500 years ago, many Confucian dynasties have adopted the Analects as an authoritative common text. Every Emperor was expected to know and follow it. Every government official, such as their versions of mayors, governors, senators, and so forth, were chosen not based on a vote, but based on how well they understood The Analects and how well they could apply it to real-life problems. The Emperor’s advisors were all the best Confucian scholars in the country, and they provided advice to the Emperor by writing papers and giving speeches that were based on the teachings of the Analects. “Confucianism” is not a religion. It is a set of political and moral beliefs with a few mystical elements. However, the Chinese civilization has treated the Analects with at least as much reverence as the Quran or Holy Bible ever has been by Islamic and Christian nations.
Your Assignment: A Letter to your Community Leader.
Your assignment is to write a letter, from you to one of your community leaders. Your goal is to provide respectful advice on how they could be a better and more moral leader. This should be someone to who you are acquainted—perhaps a church leader, a parent, a neighborhood spokesperson, your manager at work, or a teacher. An alderman is probably too distant, unless you have met them. Unless you have special connections, someone like Mayor Emmanuel or Presidents Obama and Trump are certainly too distant. We are adding one fiction to this scenario: we’re going to pretend that Confucius’ Analects are the authoritative common text for your community and the nation, and that both you and your reader (1) have read the Analects, (2) believe that a effective and moral person follow the Analects above all other texts, and (3) desires to be effective and moral. Consider the community leader’s behaviors and actions, and consider the text of the Analects. Using specific passages of the Analects¸ your assignment is to teach the community leader how they have failed and how they can improve